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AGRONOMY II - GRAINS BAG309

Duration (approx) 100 hours
Qualification Statement of Attainment

Learn to Grow Cereals and Other Grains

Grains and pulses (legumes) are among the most important food crops to mankind. Both people and animals depend on them for food. In this course, you will:

  • expand your understanding of types of grains and their growing requirements
  • study farm structures and resources required for grain production
  • learn about different production systems.

Grains studied include rice, buckwheat and pseudograins such as quinoa.

 

 

 

Courses can be started anytime from anywhere in the world!

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Learn to Grow Cereals and Other Grains

Cereals, pulses and other grains are some of the most important broad acre agronomic crops in global agriculture. In this course, you will:

  • Expand your understanding of types of grains and their growing requirements
  •  Produce better crops, and eliminate the risks associated with poor growing schedules and production practices
  • Study farm structures and resources required for grain production
  •  Learn about different production systems

Grain crops are necessary to produce seeds for human or animal consumption. They are grown under a wide variety of different climatic and soil conditions.

 
COURSE STRUCTURE AND CONTENT
Course Duration: 100 hours.

Start Date: Start at any time - study at a pace that suits you, and with full tutor support for the duration of your studies.

Lessons: The course comprises 9 lessons as detailed, below.

Lesson 1. Introduction to Grains (Cereals)

  • Production of Crops in Different Climates and Ecological Zones
    • Climate
    • Soil
    • Aspect and Altitude
  • Crop Growing Periods and Growing Degree Days.
  • Cropping Season as Affected by Moisture Availability
  • World Cropping
  • Cereal Crop Growth Stages
    • Jointing Stage
    • Booting Stage
    • Grain Fill Stage
    • Zadok Scale
  • Grain Types
    • Wheat
    • Barley
    • Sorghum
    • Oats
    • Rice
    • Corn
    • Canola
    • Pulses
  • Production Systems
    • Crop Rotation
    • Cover Crops
    • Crop Islands

Lesson 2. Grain Growing and Processing: Infrastructure and Machinery

  • Equipment Requirements
    • Choosing A Tractor and Accessories
    • Equipment and Tools Used in Different Crop Production Operations
    • Tillage
  • Seed
    • Certified and Saved Seed
    • Seed Production
    • Planting
    • Other Crop Production Operations
    • Irrigation Equipment
    • Crop Lodging
  • Harvest
    • Cereal Harvesting Equipment
    • Threshers/Combined Harvester Thresher
    • Cleaning
  • Grain Storage
    • Silos
    • Silo Bags
    • Bunkers
    • Insect Pest Control in Grain Storage

Lesson 3. Wheat, Spelt, Tritosecale, Oats, Barley, Rye

  • Wheat and Spelt
    • Cultivars
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Potassium
    • Zinc
    • Crop Health
    • Crown Rot
    • Stripe Rust
    • Leaf Rust
    • Stem Rust
    • Yellow Leaf Spot
    • Nematodes
    • Harvest and Uses
  • Tritosecale
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Harvest and Uses
    • Cultivars
  • Oats
    • Cultivars
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest and Uses
  • Barley
    • Cultivars
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorus
    • Aluminium And Boron Toxicity
    • Crop Health
    • Crown Rot
    • Net Blotch
    • Spot Blotch
    • Powdery Mildew
    • Harvest and Uses.
  • Rye
    • Winter and Spring Rye
    • Cultivars
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest and Uses


Lesson 4. Maize, Sorghum and Millet

  • Maize
    • Cultivars
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorous
    • Potassium
    • Sulphur
    • Iron
    • Crop Health
    • Boil Smut (Ustilago Maydis)
    • Rust (Puccinia Sorghi)
    • Stalk and Cob Rots
    • Harvest and Uses
  • Sorghum
    • Cultivars
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Ergot (Claviceps Africana)
    • Insect Pests
    • Heliothis
    • Sorghum Midge
    • Harvest and Uses
  • Millet
    • Cultivars
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Grey Leaf Spot
    • Charcoal Rot
    • Pests
    • Harvest and Uses


Lesson 5. Rice

  • Rice (Oryza Spp.)
    • Cultivars
    • Commonly Cultivated Varieties of Rice
    • Grain Type - Colour: Brown Vs White
    • Different Varieties for Eating
  • Cultivation
    • Environmental Overview
    • Altitude
    • Water
    • Irrigating Rice
    • Rainfed - Terrace Systems.
  • Crop Health and Diseases
    • Bacterial Blight
    • Bacterial Leaf Streak
    • Blast, Leaf and Collar
    • Red Stripe
  • Harvest
    • Ratooning
    • Rice-Wheat Systems


Lesson 6. Pulse Crops

  • Soybeans
    • Crop Health
  • Pidgeon Peas (Congo Beans)
    • Appearance
    • Cultivars
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest
  • Lima Beans
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest
  • Cowpeas
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest
  • Mung Beans
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest
  • Chick Peas
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
  • Lentils
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest
  • Faba Beans
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest
  • Field Peas (Green Peas)
    • Growing Conditions
    • Propagation
    • Soil
  • Fertility
    • Crop Health


Lesson 7. Pseudo Cereals

  • Chia
  • Quinoa
    • Appearance
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest
  • Amaranth
    • Appearance
    • Cultivars
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest
  • Buckwheat
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
  • Sesame Seed
    • Cultivars
    • Cultivation
    • Soil and Fertility
    • Crop Health
    • Harvest


Lesson 8. Processing Grains for Human Consumption

  • Post-Harvest Processing
    • Drying
    • Morphologically Determining Moisture Content
    • Portable Moisture Meters
    • Simple Drying Test to Determine Moisture
    • Laboratory Testing
    • Types of Drying
    • Natural Drying
    • Heat-Drying (Hot Air Drying)
    • When Is It Dry?
  • Storage
    • Aerating and Cooling
    • Moisture Content in Stored Grain
    • Treatment During Storage
    • Mechanical Treatments
  • Grain Processing for Consumption
    • Hulling
  • Wheat Processing
    • Cleaning and Scouring
    • Tempering
    • Grinding/Milling of Wheat
    • Bleaching the Flour
    • Blending and Final Production of Flours
    • Extraction Rate
  • Processing Maize (Corn)
    • Corn Refining
  • Processing Rice
  • Processing Oats
  • Processing Pseudo grains
    • Quinoa and Amaranth
  • Fortifying Foods


Lesson 9. Grains for Livestock Consumption

  • Differences Between Crops for Human Consumption and Those for Animal Consumption
  • C3 And C4 Grasses - C3 Plants - C4 Plants - Legume Forage - Mixed Grass and Legume Forages
  • Nutrient-Dense Forages and Forage Quality
    • Forage Maturity and Nutritional Value
    • Forage Quality
    • Palatability and Taste
    • Intake
    • Digestibility
    • Nutrient Density
    • Anti-Nutritional Factors
    • Livestock Performance and Growth
    • Specific Forage, Feed and Grass Types
    • Feeding and Ration Calculations

COURSE AIMS

  • Classify important existing and emerging grains or cereals grown around the world and explain the production systems both large and small scale, used for growing, harvesting and storing grains in different countries.
  • Describe important farm structures, equipment, vehicles, supplies and natural resources required for successful production of cereal/grain crops
  • Describe and compare the properties and production systems  of  the major ‘cool season’ cereals, namely:  wheat, triticale, spelt, barley, oats and rye.
  • Describe and compare the properties and production systems  of  the major ‘warm season’ cereals, namely:  maize, sorghum and millet
  • Describe the four main broad habitats where rice is grown and explain the variety of production systems used within these different habitats.
  • Explain and compare the production systems and uses of important cool and warm season pulse crops grown around the world.
  • Describe production of ‘non-grasses’ that are existing or emerging as important‘cereals’, such as  chia,  quinoa, amaranth and buckwheat.
  • Explain post harvest storage and processing methods used for cereals for human consumption and  examine the various sales procedures used.
  • Describe the production of important warm and cool season grasses used for forage and stock feed
  • Describe the storage, processing and sale of cereals used for livestock and demonstrate the calculation of some sample stock  rations.



WHAT ABOUT PSEUDO GRAINS?
Cereals are members of the grass family (Poaceae or Gramineae) that are grown for their edible seeds which contain high carbohydrate levels. Pseudo-cereals are grown for the same reason, but they are not members of the grass family. They are dicotyledons with broad leaves. They are therefore grouped as pseudo cereals/grains. This group includes quinoa, amaranth, chia, flax and buckwheat.

Although none of them are as common as cereal grains like wheat and oats, pseudo grains have become increasingly popular in recent years as more people become aware of gluten intolerance and celiac disease. The pseudo cereals do not contain gluten and many contain more essential amino acids than cereal grains. They also contain significant levels of other nutrients such as B vitamins and iron. At present, they have not undergone as much accelerated breeding/hybridisation as cereal crops like wheat and maize and are thus closer to their natural forms. However, this is changing as due to increased interest in their agronomy and new strains are being developed with regard to growth, season length, and physical and chemical properties among others.

Pseudo grains, although gluten-free, still contain several other chemical compounds that can cause serious digestive and immune problems. Three of these compounds – lectins, saponins, and protease inhibitors – are designed specifically as a chemical; defence to stop animals from eating seeds. The harmful effects of some of these compounds can be minimised by pre-treatments such as soaking, washing, fermenting and sprouting of seeds.

  • Study cereals and grains – learn about what to plant where, seeds, propagation, cropping, environment – soil and climate, and much more.
  • Know what to grow – where and at what times of year.
  • This course provides essential knowledge for anyone looking to utilise land for the production of grains and cereals.


STUDY WITH ACS
You can start the course at any time.

It is studied by distance learning, so you can study in the comfort of your own home. But this doesn't mean you are all alone in your studies.  Our highly qualified and friendly tutors are there to help you every step of the way.  If you have any questions at all, they are always happy to help.

Each lesson includes set tasks, and is completed with an assignment which the student submits to their course tutor.  The tutor will mark the assignment and return this to the student with comments and suggestions for further reading.

  • Our courses are written and taught by experienced professionals, so you know you can expect a high quality of teaching and support.
  • We provide full tutor support for all the time you are studying.
  • Study where you want to – the choice of online studies or eLearning offer the flexibility for you to determine where and when you study.



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Meet some of our academics

Timothy WalkerB.A.(Botany), RHS.M. Hort., Post.Grad.Dip.Ed. Former Director, Oxford Botanic Gardens.
John MasonWriter, Manager, Teacher and Businessman with over 40 years interenational experience covering Education, Publishing, Leisure Management, Education, and Horticulture. He has extensive experience both as a public servant, and as a small business owner. John is a well respected member of many professional associations, and author of over seventy books and of over two thousand magazine articles.
Bob James B.Sc.,M.Env.Mgt.Horticulturalist, Agriculturalist, Environmental consultant, Businessman and Professional Writer. Over 40 years in industry, Bob has held a wide variety of senior positions in both government and private enterprise. Bob has a Dip. Animal Husb, B.App.Sc., Grad.Dip.Mgt, PDC, M.Enviro.Mgt.


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