What are the steps that a product or service goes through from getting it noticed to facilitating a sale and achieving a happy customer?
A marketing system is made up of components and connections. Components are the various stages in the process of marketing something, and connections are the way those components are linked together. Some marketing systems are dealing with marketing services or events; others might deal with retailing or wholesaling of goods or produce. The variety and nature of these systems can be diverse; for instance, in the world of retailing, consider the following:
Retailing in the past, involved mostly “buying or selling through a retail shop”. This is a traditional view of retailing. In today’s world though, non-traditional systems are increasingly making inroads into the market place.
Retail systems might include any of the following:
General Stand-Alone Retail Enterprises
Examples: General stores, plant nurseries, landscape and soil suppliers, retail warehouses, or any other types of shops where the owner holds the freehold (ie. does not lease the premises).
Retail Shops in Shopping Complexes
Examples: Shopping malls or other centres where sites or buildings are leased or rented to a variety of different retailers.
Retail Farm Shops
Examples: Cut flower farmers, orchardists, wineries and dairy farmers (cheese makers) will sometimes set up a shop on the farm. These operations primarily concentrate on selling farm produce, but often diversify if successful to sell other produce brought in from outside the farm.
Retail Factory Shops
Factory shops may be used to either supplement the income of a factory, or perhaps dispose of stock that cannot be sold wholesale to normal customers for one reason or another (ie. damaged stock, or previous season’s products which have been removed from the product range).
Selling through web sites that take orders over the internet. This is a growth area of marketing, and like anything else can be lucrative if done well; but can also fail just as easily as any other form of retailing.
Retail Studio or Craft Shops
Craft enterprises such as potteries, jewellery makers, glass blowers etc., may develop a retail outlet on the same premises as where the art or craft is produced. This may be a supplement to other sales, or it may become a major source of income.
A retail operation is often added to tourist operations to supplement primary income derived from other sources. For example, snacks, sweets, cigarettes, souvenirs etc. may be sold at the reception desk of an accommodation facility or the entry to a tourist park.
In some jurisdictions (eg. local government areas), it is possible to obtain permits to sell products by the side of the road. Restrictions may apply as to what can be sold, when it can be sold and in what locations. A special position may be designated where it is safe for people to pull over and there is ample room for stall holders to set up.
Retailers in this situation are aiming to catch passing trade, usually on a busy road, often in peak times (eg. weekends). The products sold must be enticing for the general travelling public (eg. fresh produce, cut flowers, plants).
Mail Order Retailers
Mail order is appropriate to a wide range of products; however, it is most appropriate for products that are:
Not too heavy
Not too bulky
Not too fragile
Not too perishable
Mail order and online often fit together to become an online mail order system.
Pyramid/Agency Retail Schemes
This type of retailing is based upon using individuals as representatives to sell particular products. The individual will often target people who they know, or who they can easily canvas (possibly through door to door sales). Examples include Avon and Amway.
This involves people phoning potential customers and attempting to obtain an order over the phone. Sales people will call on people from a list (eg. the telephone directory, a trade directory, or a list of previous customers).
Travelling sales people may be involved in retail or wholesale marketing. Trade sales people are often employed to visit businesses of potential customers whom they might supply (eg. A pesticide salesman calls on farms and takes orders for pesticide; a stationery supplier calls on large offices and takes orders for stationery; a timber salesman calls on builders and takes orders for timber).
Markets operate in most countries, renting stalls on a regular or irregular basis, at a very economical rate, to anyone who has something to sell. Some markets develop a very good reputation, and regularly attract large numbers of patrons. Generally patrons of markets are looking for a bargain, or something unique - hence the most successful stall holders tend to compete on the basis of either price or uniqueness of their product.
Shows and Exhibitions
Agricultural shows, trade exhibitions and special interest events are regularly held throughout most countries (frequently as an annual event). Some retailers have found a niche in marketing through such events, travelling from one show to the next, throughout the course of the year
Register to Study -Go to panel toward top of this page (right column)
Get Advice -Use our FREE COUNSELLING SERVICE to contact a tutor
CLICK TO CONTACT US