This module has 9 lessons as follows:
- Marine Ecology Systems Ecology; Marine Weather (including El Nino, Thermocline, Gulf streams, etc), Continental shelf, Nutrient cycle, Red tide, Plankton, Marine Plants (including Mangroves, Shallow & Deep water algae, etc).
- Shallow Waters & Reefs Coral Reefs, Rocky Shorelines, Estuaries, Introduction to marine arthropods.
- Shellfish & Crustaceans Molluscs and Brachiopods. True Crabs, Hermit Crabs, Lobsters, Prawns etc.
- Squid, Octopus, and Other Primitive Animals (Cephalopods and Clupeoids, etc).
- Fish Part A (Cartilaginous Fish) Sharks, Eels, Rays; Shark Life cycle, How dangerous are sharks? Effect of sharks on tourism, etc.
- Fish Part B (Bony Fish) Fish Anatomy/structure (identifying external & internal parts); legalities (protection of wildlife), types of fish, etc.
- Marine Mammals (Dolphins, Whales, etc) Types of marine mammals, protection and politics, position of these animals in the food chain, products derived from marine mammals & substitutes for those products.
- Turtles, Sea Snakes and Seabirds Types of turtles & sea snakes; toxicity of sea snakes; turtle protection, penguins and other sea birds (eg stints, knots, pelicans, swans, gulls, eagles, ibis, egrets, terns, shearwaters, gannets, albatross, prions, oyster-catchers and petrels).
- Human Impact on Marine Environments & Fishing Human impact on marine environments; commercial vs recreational fishing, significance of certain mesopelagic fish, techniques for managing stocks of fish & other marine life.
The module consists of 9 lessons.
1. Classification and Introduction to Bird watching
- Nature and scope of ornithology (over 9,000 species).
- Place of Birds in Nature.
- Bird Classification (Aves, Ratitae, Carinate).
- Use of common names and scientific names.
- Fossil or Extinct Birds.
- Classes and Sub Classes.
- Comparing characteristics of different Super orders.
- Comparing characteristics of all major bird Families.
- Resources for further information.
- Bird Watching equipment.
2. The Biology of Birds
- Anatomical features.
- Feather Colour.
- Wing Types (elliptical, high speed, long soaring, high lift).
- Legs and Feet.
- Beaks and Bills.
- Internal Structure.
- Avian Behaviours (Flight, Diving, Reproduction, Courtship, Bonding, Territoriality, Nesting).
- Formation of Eggs and Hatching.
3. Common and Widespread Land Birds
- Eagles and Relatives, Carthatidae (New World Vultures, Condors).
- Pandionidae (osprey).
- Accipitridae (hawks, eagles, kites).
- Sagittariidae (secretary bird).
- Falconidae (falcons, caracaras).
- Crows and their Relatives.
- Butcher birds, Currawongs and related birds.
- Pigeons (structure, feeding, breeding, types).
- The Dodo.
- Pest and Introduced Birds (for man countries), Indian Mynah, Sparrow, Thrush, Starling, etc.
4. Giant Birds and Long Legged Birds
- Ratitites, Ostrich, Emu, Moa, Rhea, Cassowary, Kiwi, South American Tinamous, extinct giant Elephant Bird and Dodo.
- Herons, Storks and relatives.
5. Seabirds and Water birds
- Anseriformes: ducks, geese, swans etc.
- Gruiformes: cranes, coots, mud hens, rails.
- Charadriiformes: sandpipers, snipes, curlews, plovers, dotterels, etc.
- Gaviiformes: divers.
- Gulls, Skuas, Orks, Puffins, Terns.
- Tube Nosed Birds.
- Petrels, Storm Petrels and Diving Petrels.
- Pelicans and Relatives.
- Boobies, Frigate Birds, Tropic Birds.
6. Hunters -Birds of Prey, Owls, and Kingfishers
- Eagle species.
- Breeding behaviours of birds of prey.
- Scope of "songbirds" or "perching birds".
- Features common to Passeriformes.
- Varieties of Passeriformes (Primitive and Advanced).
- Muscicapidae: thrush.
- Flycatchers, Larks, Pippits, Wingtails.
- Swallows and Martins; physical characteristics, breeding and nesting.
- Fringilllidae: finches.
8. Other Birds
- Parrots: structure, feeding, breeding, species.
- Honeyeaters, Swifts.
- Galliformes: chicken.
- Other Orders.
9. Attracting, Feeding and Keeping Birds
- How plants benefit birds.
- Plants that attract birds.
- Feeding Birds.
- Bird Care: parasites, catching and handling, caring for a sick bird.
- Common Ailments.
Lesson 1. Vertebrate Taxonomy and Diversity Taxonomic classifications
- Phylum, Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
- Vertebrata, Chordata (chordates), Acrania, Urochordata (Tunicata), Ascidia, Synacidiae, Thaliacea (Salpae), Appendiculariae, Cyclostomata (Lampreys and Hagfish), Chondrichthyes (Sharks, Skates and Rays, Elephant Fishes), Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes) (Choanichthyes (Lungfish), Amphibia (Amphibians – Frogs and Toads, Newts and Salamanders, Caecilians), Reptilia (Crocodiles, Lizards and Snakes, Turtles and Tortoises, Marine Iguanas), Aves (Birds), Mammalia (Mammals).
- Morphology and Evolution.
- Environmental and Genetic Influences.
- Speciation, Diversification.
- Food types and distribution.
Lesson 2. Fishes: Fish Diversity - Covering major groups
- Class Agnatha (jawless fishes).
- Class Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes).
- Class Osteichthyes (bony fishes).
Lesson 3. Ectotherms –Amphibians and Reptiles
- Definitions, Endothermy, Ectotermic, Tetrapods.
- Urodela (Caudata) – Salamanders and Newts.
- Order Anura (Salientia) – Frogs and Toads.
- Order Apoda (Gymnophiona) – Caecilians.
- Class Reptilia – Reptiles (turtles, lizards, snakes, crocodiles and the extinct Dinosauria).
- Order Rhynchocephalia – Tuatara.
- Order Chelonia (Testudines) – Turtles.
- Order Crocodilia – Crocodilians.
- Order Squamata – Lizards and Snakes.
Lesson 4. Birds
- Physiology (Structure) and Anatomy, Feathers, Colour, Legs, Skeletal structure, Muscles, Senses.
- Behaviour (Flight, Diving, etc).
- Egg formation and Hatching.
- Bird Taxonomy.
- Ratitae (flightless) birds.
- Carinatea (flying birds).
- Bird orders (e.g. Grebes, divers, Ducks, geese and swans, Storks, flamingoes and herons, Owls, Eagles, falcons and hawks, Pelicans, gannets and cormorants.
- Chickens, turkeys, game birds and mount birds.
- Rails, coots and cranes.
- Pigeons and sand grouse.
- Gulls, auks and plovers.
- Parrots, parakeets, Hummingbirds, swifts, Woodpeckers, toucans, Kingfishers, bee-eaters and hornbills, Trogonos, quetzals, plumed birds.
- Perching birds such as sparrows, starlings, swallows (Passeriformes).
- Diving birds, loons, Cuckoos, coucals Nighthawks, whippoorwills, Mousebirds, etc.
Lesson 5. Mammals (Mammalia)
- Sub classes P Rototheria (egg laying animals).
- Subclass Metatheria (Marsupials).
- Subclass Eutatheria (Placental mammals - these include such diverse forms as whales, elephants, shrews, and armadillos, dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, horses, monkeys and, ofcourse, humans).
Lesson 6. Marsupials
- Subclass Metatheria (e.g. kangaroos, koalas, wombats, bandicoots, opossums, phalangers, etc).
Lesson 7. Grandorders Glires and Insectivora
- Rodents, Rabbits, Pikas, Hedgehogs, Moles, Shrews and Tenrecs.
Lesson 8. Carnivores
- Dogs, wolves, bears, racoons, cats, weasels, hyenas, seals, sea lions and walruses.
Lesson 9. Hoofed Mammals (Ungulata)
There are 7 separate orders within Ungulata as follows:
- Order Artiodactyla. This includes: Hippopotamus, Deer, Giraffe, Sheep, Cattle, Antelope, Camelids.
- Order Cetacea. This includes: Dolphins, Porpoises, Whales.
- Order Perissodactyla. This includes: Horses, Rhinoceros, Tapirs.
- Order Tubulidentata. This includes: Ardvarks.
- Order Hyracoidea. This includes: Hyraxes (or Conies).
- Order Proboscidea. This includes: Elephants.
- Order Sirenia. This includes: Manatees and Dugongs.
Lesson 10. Primates and other Archonta.
This grandorder is sub divided into 4 sub orders:
- Scandentia e.g. Tree Shrews.
- Dermoptera e.g. Flying Lemurs, Colugos.
- Chiroptera. This order comprises the bats.
- Primates (or Order Primates and sub order Strepsirhini) e.g. humans, monkeys, apes and lemurs.
1. Introduction to Wildlife Conservation
- What is wildlife conservation?
- The need for wildlife conservation.
- Important concepts ecology, ecosystem, biome, conservation values, biological diversity, genetic drift, habitat, life span, wildlife movement and wildlife management.
- Threatening processes habitat fragmentation, habitat degradation and loss, soil degradation, erosion, pollution, unsustainable harvesting, invasive species, climate change, population isolation and disease.
- Biodiversity indicators.
2. Recovery of Threatened Species
- Loss of species categories of risk.
- Species vulnerability to endangerment.
- Recovery of species and threat management.
- Habitat Conservation identifying critical habitat and protecting habitat.
- Research population growth, habitat use and conservation genetics.
- Captive breeding.
- Public involvement.
3. Habitat Conservation
- Types of Habitat e.g. temperate and tropical forests, woodland, tundra and mangrove habitats.
- Habitat Use.
- Species Richness.
- Habitat Fragmentation.
- Creating Habitats.
- Restoration Ecology creating habitat corridors, situating corridors, types of corridors, edge effects.
- Habitat Rehabilitation implementing a land management program, determining objectives, determining a program.
- The Role of GIS in Conservation.
- The Role of Protected Areas levels of protection, approaches to reserve selection and limitation of reserves.
4. Approaches to Conservation of Threatened Wildlife
- Species Approach modelling demography, effective population size, small populations, population viability analysis (PVA).
- Landscape Approach elements of landscape ecology, distribution of populations within a landscape, landscape modelling.
- Ecosystem Approach the need for ecosystem management, understanding dynamics, adaptive management, objectives for ecologically sustainable forest management.
5. Vegetation Surveys
- Plant Identification common names, scientific names, levels of division, botanical keys.
- Vegetation survey techniques such as quadrant surveys, landscape assessments, line surveys.
- Vegetation Mapping remote sensing data.
6. Fauna Surveys
- Observation techniques spotlighting, scat surveys, census techniques.
- Trapping Techniques radio tracking, call recordings, pit fall traps, Elliot traps.
- Species identification.
7. Marine Surveys
- Reef Surveys.
- Habitat Surveys.
- Aerial Surveys.
- Commercial Fish Stock Management.
8. Planning for Wildlife
- Farm Planning.
- Urban Planning.
- Use of GIS.
- Managing Threatened Wildlife Populations manipulating populations, revegetation/restoration, creating corridors, pest control plans, fencing for species, fire breaks.
10. Wildlife Conservation Project
There are 9 lessons as follows:
1. Introduction to Wildlife Management
- What is Wildlife Management.
- Approaches to Wildlife Management (Preservation, Conservation, Management).
- Purpose of Wildlife Management.
- Decision Making (Who makes decisions, Making good decisions).
- Needs of Wildlife.
- What’s a Good Habitat.
- Limiting factor.
- Carrying capacity.
- Landscape Fragmentation.
- Habitat Diversity.
- Biological Control.
- Integrated Pest Management.
2. Wildlife Ecology
- Ecology (Mutualism, Commensalisms, Competition, Predation, parasitism, herbivore).
- Behavioural Ecology.
- Population Ecology.
- Community Ecology.
- Ecosystem Ecology.
- Interactions within a Community.
- The Food Web (Derital Web, Grazing Web, Trophic Levels).
- Energy Flow.
3. Wildlife Habitats
- Classification of Habitats.
- Biomes, Ecosystems, Microclimates.
- Timbered Biomes (Boreal Forest/ Taiga, Temperate Forest, Tropical Forest, Woodland).
- Tropical Savannah.
- Temperate Grassland.
- Arctic Tundra.
- Man Made Biomes (Urban, Agricultural).
- Wet Biomes (Mangrove, Rivers, Benthos, Pelagic, Continental Shelf, Coral Reef.
- Animal Use of Features in Biomes (Trees, Logs, Surface Rocks and Ground Cover, Creeks, Wetlands and Dams).
- Case Studies.
- Changes to Habitats (Physical, Biological, Pollution).
- Water for Wildlife.
- Site Water Points.
- Managing Trees.
4. Population Dynamics
- Birth or Fecundity Rate.
- Death or Mortality Rate.
- Growth Rate.
- Life Tables.
- Cohort or Dynamic Life Tables (Age Specific).
- Static or Time Specific Life Tables.
- Case Studies of different animals in different countries.
5. Carrying Capacity
- Exponential Population Growth.
- What is Carrying Capacity.
- Fisheries stock management (stock Identification, assessment, biomass).
- Stock Management Methods.
6. Wildlife Censuses
- Introduction and census types.
- Total Counts.
- Sampling (Simple Random, Stratified Random, Systemic, Two Stage, Double sampling).
- Accuracy vs Precision.
- Bias Errors.
- Aerial Surveys.
- Indirect Methods.
- Mark-Recapture method.
- Roadside and Call Counts.
- Sampling methods for specific types of animals (ie. Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Invertebrates, Mammals etc.).
- Animal Ethics.
- Case Study.
7. Wildlife Management Techniques
- Habitat Modification.
- Vegetation Management.
- Predator Control.
- Habitat Features.
- Population Monitoring.
- Captive Breeding and Release.
- Culling and Cropping.
- Control of pest or undesirable wildlife species.
- Control Objectives.
- Effects of Control.
- Control Techniques (Manipulating mortality, fertility, Genetic Engineering, indirect methods).
8. Wildlife Management Law and Administration
- Policy and Wildlife Law.
- International Environmental Law.
- International Customary Laws.
- Hard vs Soft Law.
- Domestic/National Law.
- Evolving Domestic Law.
- Sources of Legislation.
- Environmental Ethics.
9. Wildlife Management Case Study Research Project
Problem Based Learning Project with following aims:
- Identify the objectives of a management program for an endangered species.
- Determine appropriate techniques for carrying out a census of an endangered species.
- Identify techniques for increasing the population of the endangered species.
- Identify pest species and their undesirable effect on the endangered species of bird.
- Identify techniques for reducing the undesirable impacts of the pest species on the endangered bird.
- Present a management plan in a form that is appropriate for use by wildlife worker.
There are 9 lessons in this module:
1. The Nature and Scope of Zoos
- What is a Zoo?
- The Evolution of Zoos.
- Change in Zoo Design.
- Modern Zoos, Fauna Sanctuaries and Safari Parks.
- Legislation and Codes of Practice.
- Animal Welfare.
- Record Keeping.
- Identification Tags.
- Animal Taxonomy.
- Phylums and Classes.
- The Function of Zoos - Conservation, Research and Education.
2. Occupational Health and Safety in Zoos
- Workplace Health & Safety.
- Health and Safety Management in Zoos.
- Workplace Health and Safety Practices.
- Personal Protective Equipment PPE.
- Moving Animals within the Zoo.
- Restraining Animals.
- Carrying out Veterinary Procedures.
- Managing Visitor-Animal Contact.
3. Captive Husbandry – Nutrition and Feeding
- Nutrition - Natural Diet.
- Feeding Behaviour.
- The Effect of Poor Nutrition.
- Water Requirements of Animals.
- Essential Dietary Components - Carbohydrates, Protein, Fats and Lipids.
- Vitamins and Minerals - In food and Supplementing captive diets.
- Food Storage and Preparation.
- Presentation of Food.
- Monitoring Feeding.
- Feeding Enrichment.
- Primates and Feeding Enrichment.
4. Captive Husbandry - Health
- Monitoring Health - The Healthy Animal, Recognising Ill Health and Diagnosing Diseases.
- Maintaining Health and Hygiene.
- Diseases - Metabolic Diseases, Parasites, Diseases Common to Zoo Animals, Controlling the Spread of Diseases.
- Quarantine and Vaccinations.
- Record Keeping.
5. Captive Husbandry - Reproduction
- The Need for Captive Breeding.
- Goals of Captive Breeding.
- Captive Breeding Issues.
- Inbreeding in Captive Populations - the Genetic Effects and Results of Inbreeding.
- Captive Breeding Programs - Issues and Constraints.
- Monitoring Reproductive Status - External Signs and Indicators, Invasive Monitoring.
- Assisted Reproduction - Artificial Insemination and IVF.
- Stud Books.
- Birth Control in Zoo Animals.
6. Captive Husbandry - Behaviour and Enrichment
- What Motivates Behaviour?
- Kinds of Behaviour - Reactive, Active and Cognitive.
- Learned Behaviour - Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Imprinting and Habituation.
- The Flight or Fight Response.
- Abnormal Behaviours - e.g. Stereotypes.
- Welfare Indicators.
- Physical and Social Influences on Behaviour.
- Behaviour Management.
- Environmental Enrichment - Food, Physical, Cognitive, Social and Sensory.
7. Human-Animal Interactions
- Human - Animal Interactions in Zoos.
- Keeper - Animal Interactions.
- Husbandry Routines - Daily, Weekly and Monthly.
- Dealing with Dangerous Animals.
- Handling Animals.
- Fear of Humans.
- Managing Visitor - Animal Interactions.
8. Enclosure Design and Maintenance
- Optimum Enclosure Design.
- Walk Through Enclosures - e.g. Butterfly Houses and Aviaries.
- Natural Replication.
- Routine Maintenance.
- Providing Stimulating Environments - Physical, Feeding, Sensory and Social Enrichment.
9. Problem-based Learning Project – Environmental Enrichment
- Environmental Enrichment Research Project.
- Introduction and Definition of Problem-based Learning.
- Problem Definition.
- People Involved.
- Final Report.
There are 8 lessons in this module as follows:
1. Types of Employment for Environmental Scientists Pre purchase inspections, background data, Flora and Fauna Surveys, Open Space Management Plans, Detection of Pollutants, Use of Plants, Remediation of Polluted Sites.
2. Introduction to Environmental Assessment What is Environmental Assessment? Definitions of Environmental Assessment, General Principles and Overview of Environmental Assessment.
3. International Environmental Law Foundations of Environmental Law, Making International Laws (Treaties and Customary Law), Milestones in International Environmental Law, Principles of International Environmental Law, Institutions that influence Environmental Law, Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Law.
4. Domestic Environmental Law Examples of Domestic Environmental Law, Research into Domestic Environmental law.
5. Types of Environmental Assessments Environmental Impact Assessment, Environmental Impact Statement, Risk Assessment/ Risk Analysis, Ecological Risk Assessment, Strategic Environment Assessment, Environmental Audit, Regional Risk Screening, Ecological Impact Assessment, Social Impact Assessments and Statements, Economic and Fiscal Impact Assessment, Health Impact Assessment.
6. The Design and Process of Environmental Assessment Steps in the Environmental Assessment Process (Scoping, Screening, Alternatives to the Proposal, Collection and Analysis of Information, Public Involvement, Reporting the Findings of the Study, Post Project Analysis) Study design (Baseline Studies, Predicting Impacts, Mitigation Measures), Data Collection and Analysis.
7. Writing Environmental Reports The Scientific Method and Report Writing, Generic Outline for an Environmental Statement, Examples of Suggested Layouts for Environmental Assessments, Effective Report Writing.
8. Research Project The Research Project is the student’s opportunity to test out their skills as an environmental consultant. In this project, the student will carry out a small environmental assessment and write it up as a professional report.
There are 4 options available to you to satisfy this requirement:
If you work in the industry that you have been studying; you may submit a reference from your employer, in an effort to satisfy this industry (ie. workplace project) requirement; on the basis of RPL (ie. recognition for prior learning), achieved through your current and past work experience.
The reference must indicate that you have skills and an awareness of your industry, which is sufficient for you to work in a position of responsibility.
A one module credit (100 hrs) can be achieved by verifying attendance at a series of industry meetings, as follows:
Meetings may be seminars, conferences, trade shows, committee meetings, volunteer events (eg. Community working bees), or any other meeting where two or more industry people or people who are knowledgeable about their discipline.
Opportunity must exist for the student to learn through networking, observation and/or interaction with people who know their industry or discipline
A list of events should be submitted together with dates of each attended and times being claimed for each
Documentary evidence must be submitted to the school to indicate support each item on the above list (eg. Receipts from seminars, conference or shows, letters from committee or organisation secretaries or committee members. All such documentation must contain a contact details)
Credits can be achieved by completing standard modules Workshop I, II and/or III.
Each of these modules comprises a series of “hands on” PBL projects, designed as learning experiences that involve interaction with the real world. (This approach is based upon tried and proven learning approaches that originated in American universities but are now widely used and respected by academia throughout many countries). See the web site or handbook for more detail.
There are 3 lessons, each involving a PBL project, as follows:
1. Workplace Tools, Equipment and Materials: Identifying and describing the operation of tools and equipment used in the workplace; routine maintenance of tools and equipment; identifying and comparing materials used in the workplace; using different materials to perform workplace tasks.
2. Workplace Skills: Determining key practical skills in the workplace; identifying and comparing commonly-performed workplace tasks; determining acceptable standards for workplace tasks; implementing techniques for improving workplace efficiency.
3. Workplace Safety: Identifying health and safety risks in the workplace; complying with industry OH&S standards; developing safety guidelines for handling dangerous items.
What is PBL? Problem-based learning has been defined as: “A learning method based on using problems as a starting point for acquisition and integration of new knowledge.”
If you do not work in the relevant industry, you need to undertake a project as follows.
Procedure for a Workplace Project
This project is a major part of the course involving the number of hours relevant to the course (see above). Although the course does not contain mandatory work requirements, work experience is seen as highly desirable.
This project is based on applications in the work place and specifically aims to provide the student with the opportunity to apply and integrate skills and knowledge developed through various areas of formal study.
Students will design this project in consultation with a tutor to involve industry based activities in the area of specialized study which they select to follow in the course. The project outcomes may take the form of a written report, folio, visuals or a mixture of forms. Participants with relevant, current or past work experience will be given exemption from this project if they can provide suitable references from employers that show they have already fulfilled the requirements of this project.
For courses that involve more than 100 hours, more than one workplace project topic may be selected. For example, 200 hours may be split into two projects each of 100 hours. This will offer the student better scope to fulfill the needs of their course and to meet the number of hours required. Alternatively, the student may wish to do one large project with a duration of 200 hours.
Students will be assessed on how well they achieve the goals and outcomes they originally set as part of their negotiations with their tutor. During each 100 hours of the project, the students will present three short progress reports. These progress reports will be taken into account when evaluating the final submission. The tutor must be satisfied that the work submitted is original.
If the student wishes to do one large 200 hour report, then only three progressive reports will be needed (however the length of each report will be longer).
There are 12 lessons as follows:
1. Introduction to Animal Health Care
Includes: animal welfare and control; veterinary services; code of practice; transporting animals.
2. Common Health Problems in farm animals and pets
Includes: causes of ill health, injury, pains, conditions, nutritional problems; living organisms; parasites; family pets common conditions; dogs; cats; caged birds; aquarium fish; mice; wild animals common conditions; reptiles.
3. Animal Behaviour
Includes: communication in dogs; scent; barking; body language; handling cats; bird language; types of behaviour; time orientation; space orientation; territorial behaviour; aggression; horse psychology.
4. Signs of Ill Health
Includes: vital signs, the healthy animal; signs & symptoms of diseases; recognising ill health; diagnosis of diseases; taking smears, taking tissue samples; diagnosis and control of different types of diseases including viruses; bacteria; protozoa; parasites; mites; fleas.
5. Veterinary Facilities
Includes: first aid kit; record management; enclosure for animals; environmental requirements.
6. Safety Procedures
Includes: duty of care; lifting heavy weights; reducing back injury, protective equipment; dealing with chemicals; skin penetrating injuries; risk categories; separating animals; disposal of dead/infected tissues; dangerous non-animal wastes; storage and handling of medicines; handling larger animals.
7 Administration of Animal Health
Includes: animal insurance; quarantine; importing animals; managing a veterinary office; telephone usage; record keeping; filing information.
8. Animal First Aid
Includes: types of wounds; cuts; punctures; tears; treating and cleaning wounds; granulating wounds; stitching a wound; bone and joint problems; broken bones; tendon injury; poisoning; restraining animals during first aid; restraining cats; restraining dogs; restraining horses; restraining cattle; restraining sheep.
9. Preventative Health Care
Includes: diet; insect control; dip; vaccinate; avoid stressing livestock; vaccination.
10. Routine Health Treatments
Includes: desexing; castration; vasectomy; spaying; tubal ligation; castration of cats, dogs; pregnancy; gestation periods; euthanasia; anaesthesia and analgesia; preparing an animal for surgery; sterilising equipment; castrating a colt.
11. Health Problems in Domestic Pets
Includes: burns; urinary tract infections; shock; electrolytes, ticks; reptiles; fish problems.
12. Rehabilitation Care
Includes: animal nursing, planning a recovery.
Nature Park Management
There are 12 lessons in this module as follows:
1. Introduction to Nature Park Management The role and scope of nature parks; the importance of indigenous vegetation in nature parks.
2. Basic Ecology The environment, plants and animals; ecosystem concepts.
3. Soil Management in Nature Parks Soil characteristics and problems; earthworks.
4. Plant Maintenance Basic gardening techniques; natural gardening; plant selection; succession planting; equipment.
5. Design of Nature/Wilderness Parks I Collecting site information; preparing concept plans.
6. Design of Nature/Wilderness Parks II Drawing the final plan; construction estimates; designing animal enclosures.
7. Weed Management Characteristics of weeds; weed control; environmental weeds.
8. Pest and Disease Management Management strategies; chemical safety.
9. Culture of Indigenous Plants Techniques for establishing vegetation; planting design.
10. Tree Management Role of trees in nature parks; tree maintenance plans; pruning and tree surgery.
11. Turf Care Turf varieties in nature parks; lawn preparation, establishment and maintenance.
12. Rehabilitation Problems and Solutions – aims and strategies; soil problems and solutions in degraded sites.
There are 8 lessons in this module:
1. Introduction: Influences and motivation
- What is behaviour?
- Causes of behaviour (genetics, learning, external and internal influences).
- Reactive, active and cognitive behaviour.
2. Genetics and Behaviour
- Understanding biology.
- Natural selection.
- Genetic variation.
- Development of behaviour.
- Behavioural genetics.
3. Animal Perception and Behaviour
- How animals perceive things.
- What stimulates them and how do those stimuli function.
- Neural control.
- Sensory processes, sight, sound, hearing etc.
4. Behaviour and the Environment
- Circadian rhythms.
- Biological clocks.
- Reproductive cycles etc.
5. Social Behaviour
- Animal Societies.
- Social constraints.
- Social order.
- Biological clocks.
6. Instinct and Learning
- Conditioning and learning.
- Extinction and habituation.
- Instrumental learning.
- Operant behaviour.
- Biological and cognitive aspects of learning.
7. Handling Animals
- Psychological effects of different handling techniques.
- Training animals (horses, cats, dogs etc).
- The student has a choice of which types of animals to focus on, though a variety will still be covered.
8. Behavioural Problems
- Abnormal behaviour (eg. Psychotic, neurotic).
- Domestication of animals.
- Reducing human contact.
- Reducing human dependence.
Diagnosing Animal Diseases
This module has 9 lessons:
1. How Animal Diseases are Diagnosed Conducting clinical examinations, gross and clinical pathology, information to collect and how to collect it (live animal and necropsy samples), specialist support services to assist in diagnosis (i.e. types of laboratories, specialist vets etc).
2. Diagnostic Testing Pathways followed to detect and diagnose different types of diseases, information to be supplied with samples for diagnostic testing, and diagnostic techniques.
3. Viral Diseases Characteristics of viruses and the significance of a range of viral diseases that affect animals. You will study viral taxonomy, types and structure of viruses, virus replication cycle, transmission, and some common viral conditions.
4. Bacteria and Fungal Diseases This lesson looks at the characteristics of bacterial and fungal organisms. Topics include: laboratory identification, controlling infections, specimen collection, and important disease conditions.
5. Parasitological Conditions Discuss and differentiate a range of conditions that are caused by parasites. Topics include: Terminology and classification, life cycles, protozoa, helminths, and arthropods.
6. Metabolic and Nutritional Conditions This lesson covers a range of common metabolic conditions affecting cattle, horses, pigs, sheep/goats, cats and dogs.
7. Poisoning Discuss and differentiate some common disorders that result from poisoning or toxins. These include: Cardio-respiratory, Central Nervous System (CNS), dermatological, gastrointestinal, hepatological, and haematological disorders.
8. Inherited Conditions (Genetic Disorders) Discuss types of genetic inheritance, and give examples of genetic diseases affecting horses, dogs, and cats.
9. Other Conditions and Disorders Identify and discuss miscellaneous conditions such as allergies, dehydration, and age related conditions.
10. Research Project In this project you will evaluate symptoms of ill-health or disease displayed by a set of animals, and go through the process of identifying the problem and deciding on a course of treatment.
Marine Studies II
There are 10 lessons and 10 Assignments; as follows:
1. Introduction and Simple Organisms
- Classification or Taxonomy.
- Simple and microscopic organisms.
- Types of protazoans.
2. Marine Plants
- Overview of seaweeds.
- Chlorophyta (Green Algae).
- Phaeophyta (Brown Algae).
- Rhodophyta (Red algae).
- Marine fungi.
- Marine flowering plants: sea grasses, mangroves, salt marsh plants.
3. Cnidarians and Worms
- Worms: flatworms, ribbon worms, round worms.
- Segmented worms. peanut worms, giant tube worms.
- Prawns and shrimps.
- Deep water prawns in the atlantic.
- The common prawn (Palaemon serratus).
- Giant red shrimp.
- Pink prawn.
- Shallow water prawns.
- Indian white prawn.
- Tiger prawn.
- Kuruma shrimp.
- Green tiger prawn.
- Peneaeus notialis and others.
- True crabs.
- Hermit crabs.
- Introduction and classification.
- Mussels and oysters.
- Green lipped mussels, common mussel, mediterranean mussel, and others
- Pacific oyster, European flat oyster, Olympia oyster.
- Nudibranchs (open gilled sea slugs).
- Biology of the octopus.
- Squid: classification and biology.
- Oegopsida squid and other squid.
- Characteristics of Echinoderms.
- Sea Urchins.
- Sea Cucumbers.
7. Non Bony Fishes
8. Bony Fishes I
- Structure and biological characteristics.
9. Bony Fishes II
- Families within Oesteichyes.
- Mesopelagic fish: distribution, life historyand ecology.
- Clupeoids (eg. sardine, herring).
- Tunas: types, life history, feeding, predators.
- Bill Fish (Marlins, spear fish, sail fish).
10. Marine Mammals and Higher Animals
- Marine reptiles: sea snakes, sea turtles, crocadylians.
- Pinnipeds (seals walruses, Seal lions).
- Dugongs and Manatees.
- Whales and Dolphins.
- Sea birds.
Nature Park Management II
There are 10 lessons as follows: -
1. Natural Environments Preserving natural environments; plant associations and environment rehabilitation.
2. Recreation and the Environment Impact of recreation on natural environments.
3. Wildlife Management in Nature Parks Impact of park visitors on wildlife; managing wildlife.
4. Visitor Amenities in Nature Parks Design; provision of visitor amenities including picnic areas and campgrounds; management of facilities.
5. Park Interpretation Interpretative facilities including signs and education programs.
6. Trail Design and Construction Designing access routes in parks; designing and constructing walking tracks.
7. Water Areas Conserving and managing natural water bodies in nature park; impact of humans on water areas.
8. Marketing Nature Parks Strategies used to promote nature parks.
9. Risk Management I Identifying, minimising and managing natural hazards; safety issues.
10. Risk Management II Preparing a risk management plan.
There are 10 lessons as follows:
1. Introduction to Animal Health
Learn to describe common diseases affecting farm animals and the circumstances under which animals contract these diseases - the healthy animal, causes of ill health, preventing ill health.
2. Signs & Symptoms of Diseases
The physical symptoms of diseases in farm animals - common methods of handling animals during health assessments, recognising ill health, restraining a horse, sheep handling facilities.
3. Disease Classification
Methods used in classifying animal diseases – viral diseases, bacterial diseases, parasitic diseases, protozoal diseases, disease types in beef cattle, diseases in sheep.
4. Causes and Diagnosis of Disease
The causes of disease and the relevant methods of diagnosis - examining cattle, examining a horse, ticks, tick-borne diseases, diagnosis of diseases.
5. Treatment of Disease
Methods used in the treatment of diseases in farm animals - vaccination, the animal first aid kit, tetanus antiserum, animal nursing, quarantine, slaughter, post mortem, disease prevention in cattle, disease prevention in sheep, treatment of parasites in sheep.
Outline the nature and causes of inflammation in farm animals - the inflammatory response, causes of inflammation, types of inflammation, symptoms of inflammation, inflammatory exudate, treatment of inflammation.
7. Fever and Immunity
The biological mechanisms underlying fever and the immune system in farm animals - the fever mechanism, other temperature related disorders, effect of temperature on enzymes, immunity.
8. Tissue Repair
The biological mechanisms underlying tissue repair in farm animals - healing of a clean incised wound, healing of an open wound, common horse ailments to recognise.
The biological mechanisms of wounds in farm animals and address different treatment methods for repair of common ailments - types of wounds, first aid treatments, bandaging horses, emergencies.
10. Cell changes
The causes and biological mechanisms of cell change in farm animals - neoplasms, tumours and cancers, the course of an infectious disease, death, cancers etc.