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Duration (approx) 100 hours
Qualification Statement of Attainment

Learn about Nanotechnology and it's Applications

Nanotechnology is concerned with manipulating microscopic particles of matter. It is included across a broad range of scientific fields and has diverse applications. These can include the development of new nanoscale materials as well as synthesising structures to atomic specifications. 

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Study Nanotechnology  BIT208

Understanding nanotechnologies is important in biology, engineering, materials science, chemistry, medicine, law, ethics, and computing. It is likely to affect all areas of life including food production, medicines, water purification, energy production systems, building construction and vehicle manufacturing.  


Course Content

The content of each of the nine lessons is as outlined below:

Lesson 1: Scope and Nature of Nanotechnology

  • History of Nanotechnology
  • Applications
  • Food Security
  • Medicine
  • Energy
  • Automotive
  • Environment
  • Electronic
  • Textiles & Cosmetics
  • Future
  • Passive Structures
  • Active Structures
  • Nanosystems
  • Perfect Molecular Nanosystems
  • Space Elevators

Lesson 2: Atomic and Subatomic Particles

  • Matter
  • Forms
  • Properties
  • Nanoscale
  • Elements
  • Structure of an Atom
  • Subatomic Particles
  • Atom Models
  • Molecules
  • Chemical Bonding
  • Ionic Bonds
  • Covalent Bonds
  • Hydrogen Bonds
  • Polar Bonds
  • Monomers and polymers
  • Monomers
  • Polymers

Lesson 3: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

  • History
  • Photons - Quantisation of Light
  • Atoms & Electrons
  • Quantum Numbers & Orbitals
  • Nuclei

Lesson 4: Types of Nanoparticles

  • Carbon-Based Nanoparticles
  • Ceramics Nanoparticles
  • Metal Nanoparticles
  • Semiconductor Nanoparticles
  • Polymeric Nanoparticles
  • Lipid-Based Nanoparticles
  • Properties of Nanoparticles
  • Electronic and Optical Properties
  • Magnetic Properties
  • Mechanical Properties
  • Thermal Properties
  • Synthesis of Nanoparticles
  • Carbon Nanotubes
  • Types
  • Structure
  • Inorganic Nanotubes
  • Nanowires
  • Types

Lesson 5: Nanofabrication

  • Nanotubes and Nanowires
  • Fabrication: Top-down method
  • Etching
  • Lithography
  • Exfoliation
  • Fabrication: Bottom-up method
  • Arc Discharge
  • Chemical Vapour Deposition
  • Physical Vapour Deposition
  • Self-Assembly
  • Nucleation Growth

Lesson 6: Nanocircuitry and Semiconductors

  • Types of materials
  • Insulators
  • Conductors
  • Semiconductors
  • Band Theory
  • Energy diagrams
  • Current in semiconductors
  • Covalent bonding in silicon
  • Electrons and Holes
  • Types of semiconductors
  • Doping
  • N type semiconductor
  • P type semiconductor
  • PN junction
  • Semiconductor devices
  • Diode
  • Transistor
  • Applications

Lesson 7: Applications - Improving Energy Use

  • Energy Sources
  • Energy Conversion
  • Energy Distribution
  • Energy Storage
  • Energy Utilisation

Lesson 8: Biomedical Applications

  • Human Toxicity
  • Applications
  • Bioimaging
  • Biosensors
  • Dentistry
  • Drug & Gene Delivery Using Nanotechnology
  • Magnetic Hyperthermia
  • Medical Devices
  • Photoablation Therapy
  • Sepsis
  • Tissue Engineering

Lesson 9: Applications – Environment and Agriculture

  • Agriculture
  • Environmental Impact
  • Ecotoxicology of nanoparticles
  • Titanium dioxide
  • Reversing Desertification
  • Risk Assessment


Lesson Aims

  • Discuss and define nanotechnology, including size, scale, and common applications.

  • Explain the nature of atomic and subatomic particles in the context of nanotechnology.

  • Explain the basics of quantum mechanics including how electrons spin.

  • Explain types of nanoparticles, their properties and how they are made along with some of their applications in industry.

  • Explain how the fabrication of nanomaterials works and the different material types produced.

  • Discuss how nanocircuitry differs from traditional circuitry, its relationship to semiconductors and some of its applications in industry.

  • Explain how nanotechnology and nanomaterials are changing and improving how we generate, store, and utilise energy.

  • Explain the current and developing uses of nanotechnology in the biomedical field.

  • Explain the applications of nanoparticles to the environment and agriculture.

Course Duration  :  100 hours, self paced.



Nanoscience and nanotechnology came into their own as research fields in the very early 2000s when the potential of the fields was better known.  They became a national research priority in the USA. The development and applications of the technology has been widespread and ongoing since then.

Nanoparticles (NPs) are small materials having size spans from 1 to 100 nm. They can be categorised into different types based on their properties, shapes, or sizes. The types of nanoparticles include fullerenes, metal NPs, ceramic NPs, and polymeric NPs. Nanoparticles have unique physical and chemical properties due to their high surface area and nanoscale size. Their unique properties make them suitable for various commercial and domestic applications including medical applications, energy-based research, and environmental applications. However, heavy metal nanoparticles of lead, mercury and tin are identified to be very stable. Therefore, these are not easily degradable, and this may lead to environmental issues.

Due to their size, nanoparticles (NPs) have unique material properties. Fabricated nanoparticles have many applications in sectors such as medicine, engineering, catalysis, and environmental remediation.
According to their size, morphology, physical and chemical properties, nanoparticles are classified into carbon-based nanoparticles, ceramic nanoparticles, metal nanoparticles, semiconductor nanoparticles, polymeric nanoparticles, and lipid-based nanoparticles.

Nanoscience has been finding an increasing variety of applications, and that trend is almost certain to continue for many years to come.




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